TOP Computer Architecture Interview Questions and Answers
What is Computer Architecture?
Computer architecture is a specification detailing about how a set of software and hardware standards interacts with each other to form a computer system or platform.
How Computer Architecture is characterized?
The computer architecture is characterized into three categories
- System Design: It includes all the hardware component in the system, including data processor aside from the CPU like direct memory access and graphic processing unit
- Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): It is the embedded programming language of the central processing unit. It determines the CPU’s functions and capabilities based on programming it can process.
- Microarchitecture: It defines the data path, storage element, and data processing as well as how they should be implemented in the ISA.
Mention important steps for computer design?
A CPU architecture is defined by the set of machine language which can be defined as a
- Set of registers and their functions ( capabilities )
- Sequence of micro-operations performed on the data stored in registers
- Control signals that initiate the sequence
What are the different types of fields that are part of an instruction?
The different types of fields that are parts of an instruction are
- Operation Code Field or OP Code field: This field is used to determine the operation to be performed for the instruction
- Address Field: This field is used to determine various addresses such as memory address and register address
- Mode Field: This field determines how operand is to perform or how effective address is derived
What are the basic components of a Microprocessor?
The basic components of a Microprocessor are
- Address lines to refer to the address of a block
- Data lines for data transfer
- IC chips for processing data
What are different types of interrupts in a microprocessor system? Explain?
There are three types of interrupts that can cause a break.
- External Interrrupts:
From external input/output devices such types of interrupt comes.
- Internal Interrupts:
These types of interrupts are caused due to any exception caused by the program itself. For example, division by zero or an invalid opcode, etc.
- Software Interrupts:
Only during the execution of an instruction such type of interruption can occur. The primary purpose of such interrupts is to switch from user mode to supervisor mode.
What are the common components of a microprocessor are?
The common components of a microprocessor include
- I/O Units
- Control Unit
- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
What is Snooping Cache?
Snooping Cache is the process where individual caches monitor address lines for accesses to memory locations that they have cached.
What is the simplest way to determine cache locations in which to store memory blocks?
Direct Mapping is the simplest way to define cache locations in which to store memory blocks. Associative memories are expensive in comparison to random-access memories due to the added logic associated with each cell.
What digital functions should be used to convert the octal code to binary code?
To convert the octal code to binary code multiplexers is used. It is also referred as Data Selector, where dynamic memory uses the same address lines for both row and column.
What technique is used to automatically move program and data blocks into the physical main memory when they are required for execution?
Virtual Memory technique is used. It provides a mechanism for translating program generated address into correct main memory locations. By means of mapping table translation or mapping is handled.